International Relations

An Interview with the Jordanian Ambassador to the UK: Mazen Hamoud talks to DU PolSoc

Following Mr. Hamoud’s address to the Durham Union Society on Tuesday the 7th of June, the Jordanian Ambassador spoke to your journal editor and elaborated on the situation in Jordan and the Middle East. The full transcript, which has been lightly edited for clarity, is available below.

Will Jordan be able to cope with the problems of the Palestinian refugee crisis in the long run? How do you think it will manage the related problems such as increased child marriages?

“I am not aware of any child marriages that have taken place in Jordan, and Palestinians in Jordan have been part of our community for the past few decades and have integrated into our society. Part of the final solution to the Palestinian Israeli problem is the right of return and the right of those people who are in Jordan to be able to go back to their newly established Palestinian state and live there, so this is how we plan things to be done, this is part of the peace process.”

In your opinion, has Pan-Arabism failed? Particularly after Sadat signed the Camp David Accords with Israel.

“Pan-Arabism is still very much alive in terms of the Arab League. All the Arab countries are part of the Arab League, every year there is a summit conference that takes place and brings all the leaders together. There is always hope that there are continued operations between the countries, but what I would like to say on this particular issue is that when talking about Pan Arabism as a union of Arab states, the word ‘union’ can mean many different contexts in many different shapes. Before, we used to talk about the [Arab] Union where every country comes under one banner and one leader. What is more important than that (when it comes to the Arab union), is what we can see happening in the EU and generally in Europe, which is a cooperation between countries. As a result, trade between the countries increases to allow freedom of movement within Arab countries. I think that recent history has shown that this is more important for Pan Arabism, so long as the [Arab] Union becomes more integrated and, cooperates on humanities, arts, culture and economically. This is what is really important and that is what the Arabs are working for.”

Apart from the coalition airstrikes, what else is Jordan doing to counter the influence of Daesh?

“We have one of the most prominent security agencies, I would say, in the world, and a very strong army. With the help of our friends and our allies, we protect our borders from any infiltration coming into the country, which is always under threat. We screen all the Syrian refugees coming into the country, making sure that there are no sleeping cells, but I think the most important thing we have to do and what we are trying to do, as I mentioned in the lecture is focusing on the economy, trying to draw in more investments and job opportunities for Jordanians, because by giving opportunities for people to work you give them a choice and they are less vulnerable to extremist ideology.”

Newspapers such as “The Economist” claim that Jordan is balancing its relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iran. How does Jordan manage to balance its relationship between two countries that are clearly opposed to each other?

The way that Jordan historically has had a balanced relationship with everyone is that we have an open relationship with all the countries. Of course, Saudi Arabia is our neighbour, historically they are our friends and our brothers, they and the GCC countries and they remain our most important neighbours. I would never compare our relationship with Iran with that of Saudi Arabia or the GCC countries. They are totally at different levels, but I would like just to add on top of this that we have recently asked our Ambassador in Iran to come back to Jordan for consultations and he has not been back to Tehran. We took a very strong stance in retaliation to Iran’s continued interference in the affairs of its neighbouring states, so that’s how we have tackled that issue. We therefore have a balance, but we have to take a stance: we stand with our brethren.”

What is Jordan doing trying to do to become independent from Gulf States? As it is currently quite dependent on them for aid.

“As we said at the beginning, you asked me about Pan Arabism, Pan Arabism is about all of us working together, cooperating in difference places. Economically we are very proud of the support that Saudi Arabia has been giving Jordan. We have recently signed a very important agreement with them that is going to bring a lot of investments into the country, so Saudi Arabia are creating many jobs for Jordanians, as they realise the importance of a stable Jordan. At the same time, the cooperation is that we maintain a very strong and secure country because Jordan lies on the borders of Saudi Arabia, so it is in everybody’s interest that Jordan remains as stable as it has always been.

Josh Moss, Journal Editor of DU PolSoc








Event Review: Address to the Durham Union Society by the Jordanian Ambassador to the UK, Mr. Mazen Hamoud: Jordan and the Challenges facing the Middle East

On the 7th of June 2016, The Jordanian Ambassador to the UK, Mr. Mazen Hamoud gave an address to the Durham Union Society on the current situation in Jordan and the Middle East. This review covers his speech in six sections:


  1. The Palestinian and Syrian refugee crisis
  2. Jordan’s Economic issues:
  3. The Issue of Daesh:
  4. Religious Equality in Jordan
  5. Politics in Jordan
  6. Politics in the US


  1. Palestinian and Syrian refugee crisis:


According to Mr. Hamoud, “20% of Jordan’s population are Syrian refugees, equivalent to Belgium’s population joining the UK. 1.3 million Syrians are living in communities rather than camps, as camps cannot fit them.” However, the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) suggest that Mr. Hamoud’s figures are significantly overstated, arguing that the total number of refugees and asylum seekers in Jordan stands at roughly 690,000 in 2015.


Jordan’s issue with refugees for him “is the same as the refugee crisis in Europe: they are taking advantage of infrastructure without gaining citizenship.” This is especially the case in education, where according to the Huffington Post, Jordanian schools are now operating double shifts to accommodate the urban refugees, as “170,000 Syrians are in Jordanian schools”. Rising upkeep costs of schools has consequently increased the burden on the Jordanian government.


However, it is not only the Jordanian education system that is being impacted but also the Government’s tax receipts. According to the Syria Needs Analysis Project, 160,000 Syrians are working illegally in Jordan without paying any taxes, denying potential government revenue to Jordan.


These problems are not going to be short term. Hamoud reminded us that “according to the UN it takes 15-17 years after a war for people to go back to their own country. He explained that the resolution to the problem of lost tax receipts involves Jordan giving work permits to refugees, as long as they do not compete with Jordanian industries such as agriculture and construction.” However, according to the Law Library, the list of prohibited industries includes other major industries such as engineering, medical and education. Hamoud demonstrated how Jordan has honoured their commitment to this, by agreeing in the London Conference of 2016 that Syrian refugees will be able to remain and get a job in the country. In return, the international community provided a grant of $3bn just for the Jordanian education sector, hence helping to lift the burden on Jordan’s education sector. He asserted that if this works in Jordan it could be used as a model in other countries that have a refugee crisis.


However, the Jordanian ambassador also warned against the UN’s favouritism to refugees over local Jordanians, claiming that the UN pays more to refugees than Jordanian farmers, which leads to instability. Crimes that are “terrible and bloody have occurred due to this culture absorption.”


  1. Jordan’s Economic issues:


Apart from the economic issue caused by refugees, Hamoud made us aware of those caused by a lack of water. “Jordan’s the fourth poorest country in terms of water.” The World Health Organisation (WTO) also acknowledges the issue of a lack of water in Jordan, observing that ‘water scarcity will become an even greater problem over the next two decades as the population doubles and climate change occurs… Increasing overall water extraction to meet demand carries a high cost.


It is not only water that Jordan desperately needs. It is also a high importer of energy. Hamoud noted that Jordan imported 96% of energy from abroad and this has been very problematic: until 2003 Jordan got cheap oil from Iraq, however, this ended following the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. Egypt went on to become the main supplier of gas, however, this ended during the Arab Spring of 2011.


Apart from energy related issues, the Jordanian Ambassador reminded us of the impact of Palestinian and Syrian refugees with the fact that Jordan’s debt to GDP ratio is 92%, once again highlighting the burden they have had on Jordanian public finances.


A possible way of reducing such debt could be by increasing Jordanian exports. Hamoud pointed out that “if 65% of a product is made in Jordan it can enter the EU competitively” and acknowledged that EU trade regulation has become more lenient to Jordan through agreement amongst themselves.”


Despite improved trade relations with the EU, Jordan’s trade in tourism has fallen as a result of instability in the Middle East. Hamoud lamented that some hotels in Petra have already closed down and will not come back until the crisis is solved. According to the World Bank, the year before the Arab Spring erupted across the region, some 8.2 million people visited the country, but by 2013 the figure was down to 5.4 million.


  1. The Issue of Daesh:


Along with Jordan’s trade in tourism, their trade in general has been heavily hit by the rise of Daesh. Hamoud claimed that “65% of Jordan’s land trade goes through Syria and Iraq” parts of which have been taken by Daesh, bringing Jordanian trade to a halt. The ambassador emphasised Jordan’s message on Daesh having to be “a global war” and that it is a “Third World War as a result despite not being a traditional war” later on adding that “if we do not deal with it they will come in different forms.”


When asked about the type of war being fought against Daesh, Hamoud saw it as “ideological” however, Daesh was also “a vehicle to get what people want”, as some of them do not want to lead a normal or poor life, hence they are doing it to get paid.


Hamoud highlighted what Jordan has successfully done in order to destabilise Daesh, such as bringing African Chiefs of staff together encouraging them to stop fighting, cooperate and form a task force against extremists in the continent. However, he also pointed out changes that need to be made in order to defeat the terrorist organisation, using the Iraqi army as his case study. When Iraq fought Iran in the 1980s, their army was both Sunni and Shia, which helped to keep Iraq united. However, now that the Iraqi army is predominantly Shia, and supported by large militias, such as the Shia Militia, Iraq is getting divided setting one against the other, hence making a resolution more difficult.



  1. Religious equality in Jordan:



Jordan’s opposition is also deeply rooted in Daesh’s opposition to equality of religion, which is at complete odds with Jordanian values. Hamoud emphasised how “There is no difference between a Christian and a Muslim in the Arab World or in Jordan”, as it is home of the Amman Message of 2004 that was adopted by all Muslims in the world with its statement that Islam should be balanced and about equality, without there being a difference between Muslims, Christians and Jews. He drew upon examples of Jordan’s protection of the Amman Message such as the Hashemite Kingdom helping to preserve the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem. Hamoud also pointed out how in the area of high politics, Jordan has protected religious equality by taking a lead in the war against Daesh, which for Jordan, have not only undermined religious equality, but have tarnished the name of Islam. This can be seen by the fact that although there are 1.5 billion Muslims, the 0.01% (Daesh) gives a much larger image of Islam, as a result of the media.



  1. Politics in Jordan:



Apart from Daesh, Jordan has also managed to resist domestic political instability where other countries such as Egypt or Yemen have had less success. For Hamoud, this was because “it is important for Jordan to have continuity with history”, citing part of his speech with the Foreign Secretary: because Jordan was ruled by the Hashemites, particularly King Abdullah who was the 42nd descendent of the prophet Muhammad, there was less instability in Jordan, as Abdullah’s ancestor gave him a strong legitimacy amongst his people, unlike military leaders such as Hosni Mubarak in Egypt.


Hamoud however did recognise threats to Jordanian political stability, such as The Muslim brotherhood, which has “always been able to operate in Jordan”. Despite this, Hamoud claimed that they had a “red blind” to prevent the causation of instability, suggesting that the power of the Brotherhood will is still limited.


When it came to Jordan’s domestic politics and its relation with the Arab Spring of 2011, the Ambassador reflected on it positively. For him, it “helped expedite the economic and political reforms in Jordan that conservative leaders were previously against, as they saw it as leading to instability.” According to the Centre for Mediterranean, Middle East and Islamic Studies, protestors in Jordan called for measures regarding corruption and the resignation of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The reaction of King Abdullah II was immediate, dismissing the cabinet and Prime Minister, forming a new government within a week. This was followed up by constitutional amendments and revisions such as the creation of a constitutional court and special independent bodies for election monitoring.



  1. Politics in the US:


For Hamoud, external politics seemed just as important as those of his own. This was observable in his analysis of Barack Obama, who he saw as wanting to “bring forces out of hot spots” and thinking that “if America can make peace with Iran, he will be able to focus on establishing trade with Asia and hence bring peace to the US”.


Interestingly enough, he blamed such policies for the rise of Donald Trump in the election polls, as the Republican nominee’s campaign is building on ideas that previously would never have been accepted just like those of Obama (despite a significant difference in their ideas). This is because since Obama has put drastic ideas into practice, such as negotiating peace with Iran and Cuba this has paved the way for the rise of other drastic ideas as a backlash, such as Trump’s advocacy of tighter security measures to be imposed on Muslims in the US, along with building a wall on the US Mexico border to reduce Mexican immigration.


Social Media, Free Speech and Global Terrorism: The Battle of Ideas.

How the power of social media is being harnessed by the world’s most feared terrorists. 

Technology has changed our lives. The growth of social media has brought in an era of mass communication and with it mass connection with millions of people around the world.  However with the rise of the internet has come instantaneous and almost untraceable propaganda for terrorist organisations.  In the internet domain governments are struggling to contain the spread of such radical ideologies. We are unprotected from the cyber poison of these groups. The use of globalised social media by IS is one current example of this. The growth of global information sharing has made it harder for dictatorships to keep their people in ignorance, but from events in the Middle East it’s clear to see that is not clear cut. Where states were liberated in the name of democracy and freedom their hope was replaced by instability, civil war and the rise of military factions such as IS, so in reality whole regions have been destabilised and technology and social media has paved the way.  Has the globalised technology sharing failed those in Syria, Iraq, etc? Yes, to some extent technology has provided a way for terrorist groups to profit and flourish.

IS has used the internet unlike any other group before them.  They aim their reach beyond the Arab world.  Only 3.7% of the world’s internet users come from the Middle East and only 40.2% of Middle Easterners have access to the Internet.  It is clear from these statistics that IS use of social media is aimed at Westerners that have greater access to social media rather than the relatively unconnected people of the Middle East. Furthermore, many of the Jihadis murdering for IS are illiterate and ‘educated’ in extremist Madrasas, so they cannot read the tweets or posts.  IS aims are clear – radicalise Western Muslims who feel alienated by the Western culture of equal rights for women, multiculturalism and democracy. It is easy pickings reaching out to kids growing up in the Muslim ghettos of France or Belgium or even the radicalised and illegal schools in Birmingham.  Despite the UK’s online measures against terrorist content that started in 2010 and the removal of 75,000 pieces of content from the internet by March 2015, the UK is the 2nd leading source of radicalised individuals traveling to fight for the Islamic State from Europe. The first is France.

IS are using a variety of highly encrypted apps to spread not just propaganda, but also training materials, advice on how to get weapons and build bombs and how to commit lone wolf style attacks of Jihad.  This covert information sharing is vital to the terrorist operation, but it is overshadowed by IS’s use of propaganda videos.  Only 2% of IS propaganda is brutality the rest is desperately trying to display an Islamic utopia that IS. Although, The 2% definitely makes an impact consisting of executions of women, homosexuals, foreigners, aid workers and journalists. The latest video of supposedly five British spys being executed point blank and with a young boy allegedly from Lewisham, London talking about killing infidels.  It hits hard. The boy embodies IS poison leaching into every pore of innocents. It makes us question of we can stop it.

Terrorist organisations are ahead of the law enforcement agencies and the only way to combat them would be to allow government access to encrypted communications.  Protecting our liberal democracies through illiberal means sacrifices our privacy and data security.  It also brings up questions of free speech on social media by non-sympathisers of IS. Islam unlike any other religion has waged a war on what ‘offends’ it which can be seen in the targeting of France a country that enjoys satire, the jihad on Salman Rushdie and other writers. Should we give up our free speech to try and appease extremists? No. We should tweet up louder.  “Ideologies are not defeated with guns. They are defeated with better ideas,” President Barack Obama said in July 2015. “This larger battle for hearts and minds is going to be a generational struggle.”  Global terrorism powered by social media is the age we live in, but we can share secular information and facts about human rights to minimalize IS’s exploitation of the ignorant and vulnerable on the internet.

By Vicki Lincoln


The Future of Relations Between Russia and Turkey

What are the implications of the Russian aircraft attack? 

On 24 November, a Russian Su-24 attack aircraft was shot down by Turkish forces around the Turkey-Syria border area. Inevitably, this sparked great tensions between the two nations and, to make things worse, just a few days later a Russian serviceman was spotted holding a surface-to-air missile launcher as his warship passed through the Bosphorus on 6 December. This has been considered an act of provocation by Turkey’s foreign minister. However, although mutual relations today are far from amicable, to what extent will these series of events affect future Russian-Turkish relations?

Chaos in Syria

The recent tensions between the two nations may well harm coalition efforts against ISIS in Syria. With Turkey’s apparent desire to secure the Azaz-Jarablus line along its southern border, Russia may well be inclined to become forcefully active in northern Syria in the near future, whilst simultaneously getting more vocal about Turkey’s murky relations with ISIS and more willing to support the Kurdish YPG in their expansion into Azaz-Jarablus. Russia’s relationship with the YPG has continuously been condemned by Turkey, who see the YPG as a terrorist organisation due to its ties with the Kurdistan Workers’ Party. Some media forces have even gone as far as to bring American policy makers into the equation. With increasing cooperation between Russia and the YPG in the Jarablus region, the events playing out are progressively regarded as a serious challenge by Western superpowers. Thus, the shooting down of the Russian aircraft may well have been the catalyst required in this development of potential political hostility.

Having said this, skirmishes between warplanes have not been a rare occurrence in recent months and so Putin’s remarks of being “stabbed in the back” have certainly given false impressions concerning the previous state of alliance between Russia and Syria. Tensions between the two countries have been present for a while, even if they have been underlying more mainstream issues. Maybe the events of 24 November have been used as a mere excuse to accelerate the already deteriorating relations.

The Politics of Energy

In spite of political tensions that have heightened conflict between Turkey and Russia, there are other avenues of approach that facilitate the potential for more harmonious relations between the two powers. The two nations hold a considerable partnership in the energy sector. Through Blue Stream and Trans-Balkan pipelines, Turkey imports around 70% of its annual natural gas consumption from Russia. Furthermore, Turkey is the second largest importer of Russian natural gas worldwide with twenty-seven billion cubic metres imported annually, placing Turkey only below Germany in the ranks. As if this was not enough, Turkey and Russia are in the process of constructing Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant, due for completion in 2020. The cost of the construction will come to approximately $22 billion and will be financed entirely by Russia. It would constitute around 14% of the Turkish national electricity production and thus would provide fantastic return on investment for Russia. The mutual reliance that each country places on one another, with regards to energy, is extreme. From a financial standpoint, therefore, it surely seems unlikely that any political rift is going to develop in the near future.

A Frozen Conflict?

This leaves us in a precarious situation. After the initial imposition of sanctions and dramatic announcements, any quick withdrawal by either side would be perceived as a sign of weakness, and would thus be exploited by the opposition. However, each side is fully aware of the mutual dependency present within this scenario. What this leaves us with is a scene of “frozen conflict”. Neither side will gain by escalating conflict but neither can afford to back down quite yet. Should we let future run its course, it seems likely that a period of inactivity may predominate throughout the coming months.

By Chris Marshall

The End of China’s One Child Policy: What are the Implications?


Established in 1979 as a means of reducing the population growth rate, China’s one child policy finally comes to an end.

Couples in the world’s most populous country will now be allowed to have two children, as a response to its problem of a rapidly ageing population. The Communist Party of China said, “The change of policy is intended to balance population development and address the challenge of an ageing population,” in a statement published by Xinhua, the official news agency.

The scrapping of the policy which is estimated to have prevented the birth of 400 million people is sure to have several long term consequences for the Chinese population. The policy reform is expected to mean an addition of 30 million people to the labour force by 2050 and a decrease of two percentage points in the share of elderly of the Chinese population, Wang Peian, the deputy head of the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) is reported to have said recently. Given China’s present demographic crisis, an increase in babies would not only help compensate for the large ageing population, but when these babies grow up, also increase the number of people who can support that population.

The one-child policy along with China’s gender preference for boys caused sterilizations, abortions and female infanticide to plague Chinese society. This means that not only is there a significantly wide gender gap today but also that gross human rights violations were committed as long as the policy was in place. Adam Pasick writes in The Atlantic ( that although the two child policy can’t change China’s cultural preference for boys, it might lower the pressure on couples if their first child is a girl. Additionally, it could also help reduce, and hopefully, stall, human rights violations such as female infanticide.

The ‘baby boom’ – when it happens- should increase the consumption of baby related goods such as infant formula, clothing and educational services. Pasick believes that one of the Chinese government’s key economic goals is to achieve a more consumption led growth as opposed to the highly export dependent economy it presently is.

The two child policy has not necessarily evoked happiness for all Chinese parents. Lei Lei, a Beijing resident tells The Indian Express that the cost of raising a child in China is high, and having another child will add to their already heavy financial burden. However, finally being given the option of having two children, after decades of severe policy enforcement, should surely be a refreshing change for Chinese parents.

While the two-child policy could have the mentioned positive consequences, The Guardian’s Mei Fong argues that it would take very long before these results start showing. She believes that not only did the one-child policy change the number of kids that a couple had, but has overall changed the way that Chinese people live their lives. Major life decisions such as marriage, employment, and retirement have all been shaped by the policy. Consequently, it is questionable whether the end of the policy will result in any sort of ‘baby boom’ that will undo its negative effects. Like everything in politics, this measure too has its fare share of supporters and critics. Time is the best judge and only time will tell whether the two-child policy will, in fact, prove to be the solution to China’s myriad problems.

By Easha Moitra 


Yemen: A War, a Humanitarian Disaster and an International Failure

Image: Wall Street Journal

Image: Wall Street Journal

What started out as a civil war between a Westernised democracy and Islamic separatists in Yemen has become a proxy war between regional heavy weights Iran and Saudi Arabia. The story has been over-shadowed by greater instability in the Middle-East, but nonetheless it is shaping the regional dynamics. This conflict has a myriad of foundations such as religious rivalries, anti-Westernisation sentiments and the spread of radical Islam.

Yemen is the poorest country in the Middle East. Sixty-five percent unemployment rate and an over-dependence on oil and gas reserves have opened a poverty trap where political, religious and social divides have flourished.  The government is weak and the tribal nature of Yemen has meant that the government has never controlled land outside of large cities leaving governing to tribal chiefs or worse terrorist groups and militias. This fragmented society has a history of being plagued by civil war with Yemen only being declared a country in 1990.

Let’s begin with the domestic uprising faced by the Yemeni government. The civil war in this failed state arose between the Shia Houthi and the Sunni population. The Houthis accuse the government of being propped up by America and Israel.  They have strong links to Hezbollah in Lebanon and are strong supporters of the Assad regime in Syria.  Hence, they reject the idea of a westernised and American funded Yemeni government.  Drone strikes targeting Al Qaeda have been carried out by the CIA since 2002 arguably fuelling the anti-American sentiment.  Also, there is another separatist movement in the South of the country who want to escape what they see as an oppressive state and the government’s inability to stem Al-Qaeda expansion in the South. This has given rise to militias run by tribes’ popular committees.

How did this civil war become an international proxy war? The divides in this conflict are deeply religious and cultural. They not only reflect the lack of cohesion between tribes of the same religion, but also between the other religions in the region.  Yemen’s majority Muslim population is split between mainly Sunni and Zaidi Shia Muslims. It is a bitter religious divide. Saudi Arabia, a key player in air strikes, is a majority Sunni Muslim country and borders on Yemen. Although, Yemen is vital to Saudi Arabia’s exports of oil to Asia across the Red Sea.  To add the complicated situation Iran, who back the Houthis separatists, is a majority Shia Muslim state and is one of the most stable and powerful states in the region. A Shia Houthi and Iranian controlled Yemen would be a great threat to their main export market and the strategic Red Sea coastline. Saudi Arabia fears growing Shia influence making Yemen an important battle ground. Furthermore, Western tensions with Iran and perhaps interest in the large natural gas reserves in Yemen have tied Western nations in particular the USA and the UK into backing Saudi led air strikes. The Saudi led coalition air strikes began in March 2015. Why did The West get involved? The USA and the UK have an invested interested in military action in Saudi Arabia as it is one of their largest arms export markets. The USA also regards Yemen as needing to maintain a secular democracy rather than Islamic control.  The main force of destruction are air strikes and heavy weaponry clashes.  This has resulted in war crimes committed by both Coalition and separatist forces.

The humanitarian crisis in Yemen, just like its war, is also complicated and seemingly without end.  Yemen has been declared a level three emergency by the UN. This is seen as the highest level of severity.  There are over 1.5 million internally displaced Yemeni people which is five times the recorded number in 2004. Intense Saudi border controls have left 78% of the population in urgent need of food, water and medical supplies.  Aid ships are allowed into the country, but they are insufficient to supply a country that imports 90% of its goods though bulk commercial shipping which is blocked.  Yemen is a transit country of mixed migration flows, including asylum-seekers and migrants from Ethiopia and Somalia. Refugee camps have been common place in Yemen for decades. Now with the addition of Yemeni people to the UN refugee camps aid is being pushed to the limit.

So month’s down the line who is winning? No one. As Houthis are being battered in their northern power house terrorist groups like IS and Al Qaeda have filled the vacuum. Sunni based IS have already targeted Shia mosques with suicide bomb attacks murdering more people in a country already torn from violence.  Long term peace in Yemen is looking slim.  It seems America’s Great Middle East Experiment has failed.

By Vicki Lincoln